The transmission media can be divided two broad categories and some sub-categories:
- Coaxial cable
- Twisted pair cable
- Shielded twisted-pair cable
- Unshielded twisted-pair cable
- Fiber optic cable
- Radio wave
Guided Media will give a particular path to the network signals. It is classified in 3 categories.
Coaxial transmission media includes a center core conductor of solid (Usually copper) encircled in associate degree insulated sheath. different elements of coax cable ar plastic insulation, adorned metal shielding. associate degreed an outer plastic covering. coax cable is built in an exceedingly approach so it will add resistance to attenuation, crosstalk, and EMI.
- Attenuation: The loss of signal strength because it travel over distance.
- Crosstalk: The degradation of an indication caused by signals from different cable running on the point of it.
- EMI: magnetic attraction interference.
The most typical use of concentric is in commonplace cable TV. it’s fairly straightforward style. A copper conductor lies within the center of the cable, that is encircled by insulation. A adorned or mesh outer covering surrounds the insulation. this is often additionally a conductor. A PVC plastic encases the covering.
Shielded Twisted pair cable (STP):
IBM introduced this sort of cable. these of cable have four pairs of wires that ar twisted. atmosphere cable includes a metal foil or adorned mesh covering every combine of insulated conductors. it’s a higher cable sort as a result of it’s freed from noise penetration and XT. however it’s bulkier and costly. IBM chiefly uses transmission media cable .
Unshielded Twisted pair cable (UTP):
Unshielded twisted pair cable are most typically used transmission media in medium and tiny networks. the everyday twisted-pair cable for network use contains four pairs of wires. every single wire of the combine contained within the cable is twisted round the different. Electromagnetic interference is reduced by the assistance of the twist within the wires.
The maximum distance of UTP is 100 Meters. UTP cable uses small plastic connectors designated as registered jack 45, or most often referred to as RJ-45. It looks like phone connectors but RJ-45. RJ-45 is similar to the phone connectors, except that it has four couple of wires.
Cable Categories & Data speed:
- Cat1 – 1Mbps
- Cat2 – 4Mbps
- Cat3 – 10Mbps
- Cat4 – 16Mbps
- Cat5 – 100Mbps
- Cat6 – 1Gbps
- Cat7 – 10Gbps
Fiber Optic Cable:
Fiber optic cable is a thin strand of glass enclosed in a glass tube and shielded by a PVC phasic covering transmission media Because the glass is so thin it does have a little bit of flexibility, but that doesn’t prevent fiber cable from breaking. so we need to handle it carefully.
one huge advantage of fiber optic cabling is the extensive distance that optical signal can travel. In fact, the maximum distance of fiber optic cabling is measured in miles, rather than meters. Another benefit of fiber optics is that they are completely immune to radio frequency and electromagnetic interference transmission media .
Unfortunately, despite the advantage of fiber-based media over copper, it still does not enjoy the popularity of twisted-pair cabling. The moderately difficult installation and maintenance procedures of fiber often require skilled technicians with specialized tools. Furthermore, the cost of a fiber-based solution limits the number of organizations that can afford to implement it. Another sometimes hidden drawback of implementing a fiber solution is the the cost of retrofitting existing network equipment. Fiber is incompatible with most electronic network equipment. This means that you have to purchase fiber-compatible network hardware transmission media.
Fiber optic cable itself is composed of a core glass fiber surrounded by cladding. An insulated covering then surrounds both of these within an outer protective. now a day fiber optic cable is best transmission media in network.
Two types of fiber optic cable are available: Single and multimode fiber optic cable . In multimode fiber optic cable , many beams of light travel through the cable bouncing off of the cable walls. This strategy actually weakens the signal, reducing the length and speed the data signal can travel. Single-mode fiber uses a single direct beam of light, thus allowing for greater distances and increased transfer speed. Some of the common types of fiber optic cable include the following.
- 62.5-micron core/125 micron cladding multimode
- 50-micron core/125 micron cladding multimode
- 8.3-micron core/125 micron cladding multimode
Fiber optic cable supports up to 1000 station and can carry the signal up to and beyond 2 Kilometers. fiber optic cable are also highly secure from outside interference transmission media, such as radio transmitters, arc welders, fluorescent lights, and other sources of electrical noise. On the other hand, fiber optic cable is by far the most expensive of these cabling methods, and a small network is unlikely to need these features. Depending on local labor rates and building codes, installing fiber optic cable can cost as much as Rs. 20000per network node.
The main advantage of fiber optic cable is the bandwidth. it can support very Hight rate of bandwidth transmission media. So it will surely increase it’s popularity because of it’s feature.
Some More Fiber optic cable type:
- MDU: Fiber optics cable, multiple dwelling unit
- OSP: Fiber optic cable, outside plant
- ADSS: All-Dielectric Self-Support
- OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire
- OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser
- OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser
- OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum
- OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum
- OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use
- OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use
- OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive
- OFC: Optical fiber, conductive
Unguided Media: Wireless Communication
Without using physical conductors electromagnetic waves can be transported through unguided media. This is most commonly known as wireless communication. Unguided Signals can travels from the source to the destination in several ways. There is ground propagation, sky propagation and line-of-sight propagation. Wireless transmission can made by Radio wave, Microwave, Infrared. you will learn more about Transmission media and wireless communication Click Here.
Wireless networking technologies:
|Standard||Data Speed||Frequency||Transmission Type||Topology||Range|
|IEEE 802.11 Legacy||2 Mbps||2.4 GHz||FHSS or DSSS||Point-point||30 m|
|IEEE 802.11b WiFi||11 Mbps||2.4 GHz||DSSS with CCK||Point-point||30 m|
|IEEE 802.11a WiFi||54 Mbps||5 GHz||OFDM||Point-point||30 m|
|IEEE 802.11g WiFi||54 Mbps||2.4 GHz||>20 Mbps: OFDM, <20 Mbps: DSSS with CCK||Point-point||30 m|
|IEEE 802.11n WiFi||540 Mbps||2.4 GHz||MIMO||Point-point||50 m|
|Bluetooth||2 Mbps||2.45 GHz||FHSS||Scatternet||10 m|
|Infrared||100 kbps~ 16 Mbps||100 GHz ~ 1000 THz||Baseband||Point-point LOS||1 m|
|IEEE 802.16 WiMax||75 Mbps||2 GHz ~ 11 GHz, 66 GHz||BPSK||Point-point Cellular||30 km|