IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Specifications

IEEE Standards ( Ethernet IEEE 802.3 )

802.2Logical Link Control (LLC)
802.3Ethernet (CSMA/CD)
802.4Token bus LAN
802.5Token ring LAN
802.6Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
802.7Broadband technical advisory
802.8Fiber optic
802.9Integrated voice/data
802.10Network Security
802.11Wireless Networks
802.12Demand Priority (100VG-Any LAN)
802.13Not used
802.14Cable modem
802.15Wireless personal area network
802.16Broadband wireless access
802.17Resilient packet ring

What is Ethernet and types of Ethernet?

It is standard for LAN technology. Most of the network today use Ethernet. Bob Metacafe originally developed Ethernet as a technology That create a networking with remote computer. Some vendors like Digital, Intel and Xerox took the original specification and developed to accommodate speeds of 10 Mbps using coaxial cable or specific categories of twisted-pair cabling. In 1990 the 802.3 committee standardized Ethernet, and specifications under this correspond to 10Base2, 10Base5 and a major component of Ethernet is the use of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) for access to the physical medium.

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

Ethernet is by far the most commonly used local area network (LAN) architecture. Ethernet features high speeds, robustness (high reliability), low cost and adaptability to new technologies. These features have helped it maintain its popularity despite being one of the oldest of the LAN technologies. Source

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet specifications

DesignationCable TypeMax LengthSpeedConnectorTopologyStandard
10BASE2Coaxial Cable185 m10MbpsBNCBus 
10BASE5Coaxial Cable185 m10MbpsBNCBus 
10BASE-TCat3 UTP100 m10 MbpsRJ45starIEEE 802.3i
10BASE-FLMMF2000 m10 MbpsSTstarIEEE 802.3j
100BASE-TXCat5 UTP, Cat5e FTP100 m100 MbpsRJ45starIEEE 802.3u
100BASE-FXMicro MMF412 m (half duplex)
2000 m (full duplex)
100 Mbps (half duplex)
200 Mbps (full duplex)
SCstar, point-pointIEEE 802.3u
1000BASE-TCat5e / Cat6 UTP (4 pairs)100 m1 GbpsRJ45starIEEE 802.3ab
1000BASE-CXTwinax STP25 m1 GbpsHSSDCstar, point-pointIEEE 802.3z
1000BASE-SXMicro MMF550 m (50u)
275 m (62.5u)
1 GbpsSCpoint-pointIEEE 802.3z
1000BASE-LXSMF or MMF550 m (MMF)
5000 m (SMF)
1 GbpsSC, LCpoint-pointIEEE 802.3z
10 GBASE-SRMMF300 m10 Gbps850nm serial LANpoint-pointIEEE 802.3ae
10 GBASE-LRMMF10,000 m10 Gbps1310nm serial LANpoint-pointIEEE 802.3ae
10 GBASE-ERMMF40,000 m10 Gbps1550nm serial LANpoint-pointIEEE 802.3ae

IEEE 802.3 Standards

IEEE or Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers is an organization that sets standard on a variety of technologies. Various committees are used to develop and promote these standards, including the 802 committee, which is broken down into smaller sub-committees or working groups that focus on specific aspects of networking. One of these sub committees is the 802.3 working group, which has set standards for physical media used on networks.

The following section describe these standards: 10Base Network


10Base2 (Also known as Thinnet) is a thin coaxial cable used on Ethernet Networks.  The cable used in 10Base2 is an RG-58 cable that is 6.3 mm or ¼ inch in diameter, and supports transmission speeds of 10Mbps. Used on bus typologies, the network cards are attached to the cable using a BNC T-connector, and the backbone cable is terminated at each end using a 50 Ohm terminator. The 10Base2 cable has a maximum length of 185 meters or 600 feet per segment, and workstation must be spaced a minimum distance of ½ metres from one another.


10Base 5 (Thicknet) is a thicker type coaxial cable that is 13 mm or ½  inch diameter, and supports transmission speeds of 10 Mbps. The cable has a maximum length of 500 meters or 1640 feet per segment . Like 10Base2, 10Base5 , is used on bus topologies, and must be terminated on each end using a 50-Ohm terminator. However,unlike 10Base2, 10Bsae5 generally is not directly connection can be made to the cable. An N connector or a cabling tray and transceiver called a MAU (Media Attachment Unit) are connected to the cable. Another cable called an AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) that can be up to 50 meters in length is then run to the network card of the workstation . Each end of the AUI cable uses a15 pin D-connector. Which is also referred to as a DIX (Digital-Intel-Xerox) or DB-15 connector. While we will discuss transceivers and connectors in detail later in this chapter, it is important to remember that a 10Base5 cable can have no more that 100 taps per cable segment, with each tap spaced 2.5 meters apart.

Coaxial and therefore 5-4-3 Rule:

10Base2 or 10Base5 uses co-axial cable because the affiliation media. 5-4-3 applies once operating with local area network networks that use concentrical media. The rule specifies that the network is restricted to a complete of 5 cable segments. These 5 segments are often connected victimisation no over four repeaters, and solely there segments on the network are often inhabited.


IEEE 802.3 commonplace embrace another technology referred to as arcnet that used coax. Arcnet may be a token bus technology, even as local area network, Token, Token Ring, and FDDI. like Token Ring, once a digital computer on Associate in Nursing Arcnet network receives a token, it’s the chance to speak on the network. If  it doesn’t have any knowledge to send, then ensuing digital computer on the bus then gets  the token. If it doesn’t send knowledge, then the receiving machine resets the token et al. will then transmit knowledge once they get the token.

There square measure completely different concentrical cables that will be utilized in 10Base2, 10Base five or Arcnet. These cables are:

  • RG-58 /U, that includes a solid copper wire, and is employed for ten Base a pair of Networks.
  • RG-58 A/U, that includes a stranded copper wire, and may even be used for 10Base2 networks.
  • RG-58 C/U, that may be a military implementation of RG-58 A/U.
  • RG-59. that is employed for broadband transmission (Such asa cable television), and is employed for 10Base5 Networks.
  • RG-6, that is employed for Broadband, however supports higher transmission rates than RG-59.
  • RG-62, that is employed for Arcnet.
  • RG-8, that is 10Base5 cable.


This is another 10Mbps commonplace victimisation UDP cabling. 10BaseT networks have a most section length of one hundred matters, and up to a complete of 5 physical segments per network. topology are often enforced through the ten Base T network. This commonplace uses appoint-To-Point affiliation between the pc and therefore the hub or switch. 10BaseT will use completely different classes of UTP cabling, as well as three, 4, and 5 . It may be used with class 5E and class six cabling however thse styles of cable can’t contribute something relating to speed.


The 10BaseFL local area network design permits for a 10Mbps local area network niroment that runs on fiber-optic cabling. the aim of the fiber-optic cabling  is to use it as a backboane to permit the network to achieve bigger distances, it’s primary profit, over 10BaseT, is that it are often utilized in distances up to 2km.

Fast Ethernet

In the sooner age of networking, 10Mbps networks were thought-about quick enough, however those days square measure long gone. Today, firms and residential users alike demand additional information measure then is on the market with 10Mbps network solutions. during this state of affairs, quick local area network is that the most ordinarily used network style. quick {ethernet|local square measurea network|LAN} standards are per the IEEE 802.3u commonplace.

Three standards square measure outlined by IEEE 802.3 u: 100BaseTX, 100BaseT4, and 100BaseFX.


100BaseTX is outlined in IEEE commonplace 802.3u. 100BaseTX transmits network knowledge at speed up to 100Mbps, the speeds at that most LANs operate nowadays. 100BaseTX is most frequently enforced with UTP cable, however it will use STP; so, it suffers from constant 100-meter distance limitation as different UTP-based networks.  100BaseTX uses class five UTP cable and like 10baseT, It uses freelance  transmit and receive methods and may so support full-duplex operation. 100Base Texas is while not question the foremost common quick local area network commonplace.


100BaseT4 is that the second quick local area network commonplace fixed below 802.3u. It will use class three, four and five UTP cable it usesall four of the out there pairs of wires inside the cable, Limiting full-duplex transfer. one hundredBase T4 is analogous in different respects to 100BaseTX: its cable distance is restricted to 100 meters and it’s most transfer speed is 100Mbps. 100BaseT4 isn’t wide enforced however it’s someday utilized in atmosphere wherever existing cable like class three cable exists. In such a state of affairs, you’ll be able to use 100BaseT4 rather than replacement the class three cable with class five UTP.  


100BaseFX is that the IEEE commonplace for running quick local area network over fiber-optic  cable. thanks to the expense of fiber implementation, 100BaseFX is is essentially restricted to use as a network backbone. 100BaseFX will use two-strand multimode fiber or single mode fiber. the utmost section length for half-duplex multimode fiber is 412 meters, however this most will increase to a bearing ten,000 meter for full duplex single mode fiber. 100BaseFX typically uses SC or ST fiber connectors.

Gigabit Ethernet:

Gigabit local area network networking that is changing into progressively common as a backbone affiliation methodology and for a server to modify property, is achieved mistreatment either copper-based media or fiber optic cabling the 2 IEEE standards that specify Gigabit transfer ar 802.3z and 802.3ab.

Gigabit Ethernet


Three distinct standards ar such underneath the IEEE 802.3z standard; they’re observed jointly as 1000BaseX. The 3 standards ar 1000BaseLX, 1000BaseSX and 1000BaseCX. 1000BaseLX and 1000BaseSX use long wavelength optical maser and short wavelength optical maser, severally each 1000BaseSX and 1000BAseLX is supported over 2 variety of multimode fiber62.5 and five0 micron-diameter fibers. solely radio emission lasers support the employment of single-mode fiber.

The 1000BaseCX customary specifies Gigabit local area network over atmosphere cabling. phase length of 1000BaseCX is extraordinarily restricted, reaching a most of twenty five meters. 1000BaseCX isn’t wide enforced.


1000BaseT may be a Gigabit local area network customary that permits knowledge to be transmitted over twisted-pair cabling at one Gbps. this suggests that one thousand megabits or one billion bits of information is transmitted every second. a hundredBaseTuses UTP cabling to transmit knowledge at these speeds across cable segments that ar up to 100 meters long. For this to be used but the UTP should be class five or higher.


1000BaseCx uses fiber optic cabling to transmit knowledge at speeds of one Gbps across cable segments that ar up to meters longas a result of it’s Associate in Nursing older customaryit’s not unremarkably used on newer networks.


100BaseSX uses multimode fiber optic cabling to transmit knowledge at speeds of I Gbps across cable segments that ar up to 550 meters long.


1000BaseLX uses fiber optic cabling to transmit knowledge at speeds of one Gbps. mistreatment multimode fiber, knowledge is sent across cable phase that ar to 550 meters longwhereas single mode fiber can permit  longer distances od up to ten kilometer.

Fiber-optic connector


The  802.3ab customary specifies Gigabit local area network transfer over class five UTP cable. to attain the 1000Mbps speeds, every of the four pairs of wires in an exceedingly twisted-pair cable will transmit 250Mbps.

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