TCP IP Internet Protocol Suite and OSI Model Layers

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection (Internet protocol suite) is a reference model and it conjointly web protocol suite that describes seven layers that laptop systems use to speak over a network. it had been the primary normal model for network communications, adopted by all major laptop and telecommunication corporations within the early Nineteen Eighties.

The fashionable web isn’t supported OSI, however on the less complicated TCP/IP model. However, the OSI 7-layer model remains wide used, because it helps visualize and communicate however networks operate, and helps isolate and troubleshoot networking issues.

OSI was introduced in 1983 by representatives of the foremost laptop and medium corporations, and was adopted by ISO as a global normal in 1984. source

OSI Model Layers:

7Applicationnetwork application services and processesdataFTP, TFTP, HTTP, SMTP, SMB, NCP, Telnet, NTP, File & Print, DNSgateway
6Presentationencryption, formatting, compression, translationdataASCII, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, MIDI, MPEG, MIME, Quicktimegateway
5Sessionestablishes maintains, manages network connections and sessionsdataRPC, ZIP, SCP, SQL, NetBIOS, NFS, ASP, LDAP, SSL, SMBgateway
4Transportend-end error recovery, connectivity, flow controlsegmentsTCP, SPX, UDP, NBP, NCP. NetBEUI, SCTPgateway
3Networkrouting, forwarding of packets; sequencing of datagrampacketsIP, IPX, ARP, RARP, DHCP, BootP, ICMP, RIP, BGP, OSPF, IPSecrouter, brouter
2Data Linkencoding/decoding of packets into bits; frame synchronization, error checkingframesMAC, LLC, PPP, ATM, frame relay, 802.11b/g, L2TP, FDDIswitch, bridge
1Physicalelectrical, mechanical, lightwave, radio frequency, media specificationsbitsEthernet, WiFi, Token Ring, BRI, RS232, V.35hub, NIC, WAP
OSI model layers

TCP/IP Model Layers:

The OSI Model we simply checked out is simply a reference/logical model. it internet protocol suite had been designed to explain the functions of the communication system by dividing the communication procedure into smaller and less complicated parts. however once we name the TCP/IP model, it had been designed and developed by Department of Defense (DoD) in Sixties and is predicated on normal protocols. It internet protocol suite stands for Transmission management Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP science web Protocol Suite . The TCP/IP model is a elliptical version of the OSI model. It contains four layers, in contrast to seven layers within the OSI model. The layers are:

  1. Network Access/Link Layer
  2. Internet Layer
  3. Host-to-Host/Transport Layer
  4. Process/Application Layer
Internet Protocol Suite

TCP science web Protocol Suite

TIC/UDP portProtocolFull NameDescriptionOSI Layer
7ICMPInternet management Massage protocolUsed for error (echo)reporting,flow management and route testingNetwork
20/21FTPFile transfer protocolProtocol for uploading and down-loading files to and from a far off host; conjointly accommodates basic file management tasksApplication
22SSHSecure ShellLike Telnet permits sessions to be opened on a far off host, however provides authentication and encoding capabilitiesApplication
22 (work with SSH)SFTPSecure file Transfer ProtocolProtocol that performs the same operate to FTP, however Provides safer authentication and encoding  mechanismsApplication
22 (work with SSH)SCPSecure Copy ProtocolProtocol that uses Secure shell (SSH) Technology to supply a secure thanks to copy files between systemsApplication
22 (work with SSH)LDAPLightweight Directory Access ProtocolProvides a mechanism to access directory Services systemsApplication
23TelnetTelnet permits Sessions to be opened on a far off hostApplication
25SMTPSimple Mail Transfer ProtocolDelivers emails between email servers; causation of emails; uses TCPApplication
465SMTPsSecure straightforward Mail Transfer ProtocolDelivers emails between email servers; causation of emails; uses TCPApplication
53DNSDomain Name SystemTranslates hostnames to science addresses; uses TCP (zone transfers), UDP (queriesApplication
69TFTPTrivial file Transfer protocolMechanism for transporting email across networksApplication
80HTTPHypertext Transfer protocolProtocol for retrieving files from an internet server.Application
109POP2Post workplace Protocol – Version 2Used for retrieving email from a server on that the mail is storedApplication
110/143 POP3/IMAP4Post workplace Protocol version 3/ web Message Access Protocol Version 4Used for retrieving email from a server on that the mail is storedApplication
995/993POP3s/IMAP4sPost workplace Protocol version 3/ web Message Access Protocol Version 4Used for retrieving email from a server on that the mail is storedApplication
119NNTPNetwork News transport ProtocolProtocol used for accessing and downloading messages from Internet-based newsgroups.Application
123NTPNetwork Time ProtocolUsed to communication time synchronization data between devicesApplication
443HTTPSHypertext Transfer protocol SecureSecure Protocol for retrieving files from an internet server.Application
515LPRLine printer remoteProvides a mechanism to send printing tasks to a print serverApplication
 IPInternet ProtocolConnectionless protocol used for moving knowledge around a network.Network
 TCPTransmission management ProtocolConnection-oriented protocol that provides flow management, sequencing, and retransmission of born packetsTransport
 UDPUser datagram protocolConnectionless various to TCP that’s used for application that don’t need the functions offered by TCPApplication
 ARPAddress Resolution ProtocolResolves science addresses to mack addresses, to alter communication between devicesNetwork
 RARPReverse Address Resolution ProtocolResolves mack addresses to science addressesNetwork
 IGMPInternet cluster Management protocolProtocol used for communication between devices associate degree exceedingly|in a very} multicast groupNetwork
 ICSInternet association SharingConnects multiple laptops on an area network to the net through one association ANscience address; uses NATNetwork
 WINSWindows web Naming ServiceResolves a number NetBIOS name or computer name into an science address; utilized in bequest Windows  Application
 ZeroconfZero ConfigurationConnects networking devices exploitation an LAN cable; no configuration or DHCP requiredApplication
 SMBServer Message BlockShares files, directories, ANd services; message format utilized by DOS; permits UNIX system/Linux and Windows machines to share filesApplication
 SambaProvides file and print services to SMB clients; runs on UNIX system and LinuxApplication
 ICAIndependent Computing ArchitectureThe core of Citrix presentation server that allows Windows or UNIX server to run an application for multiple users simultaneously 
 Apachestandard property right UNIX-based net serverApplication
 AFPAppletalk File ProtocolA file sharing protocol used with TCP/IP to allow non-apple computers to access apple servers 

Remote access protocols and services

RASRemote Access ServiceUsed for client remote access to a network
PPPPoint-Point ProtocolUsed to establish an internet connection between serial point-to-point links; provides for dial-up connnections to networks
SLIPSerial Line Internet ProtocolUsed to connect to the internet via a dial-up modem; older, slower, less reliable than PPP
PPPoEPPP over EthernetUses PPP over Ethernet to connect an ethernet LAN user to the internet using an ADSL or cable modem; users share a broadband connection
PPTPPoint-Point Tunnel ProtocolA form of encryption that provides a tunnel for secure connections over the internet; used to create VPN
VPNVirtual Private NetworkA private, secure, point to point connection from a company LAN to the remote users and wireless nodes using the internet
RDPRemote Desktop Protocolconnects a client to a network via a terminal server and uses authentication to establish connection to run applications and printers remotely

Security protocols

Security protocols
IPSecInternet Protocol SecurityProvides authentication and encryption over the internet; works with IPv4 and IPv6; used to secure VPN
L2TPLayer 2 Tunneling ProtocolSupports non-TCP/IP protocols VPN over the internet; combines the best features of PPTP and L2F
SSLSecure Sockets LayerUses a private key to encrypt data that is transferred over the SSL connection; service independent and can secure different network applications
WEPWired Equivalent PrivacyEncrypts and protects data packets over radio frequencies; does not offer end-end security
WPAWiFi Protected AccessOffers improved data encryption and user authentication using the wireless devices MAC address; uses TKIP encryption
AESAdvanced Encryption StandardA cryptographic cipher that uses Rijndael algorithm
PGPPretty Good PrivacyAn encryption utility based on public key encryption designed to encrypt email transmissions
802.1xMethod for passing EAP over both wired and wireless networks; provides authentication services for wireless networks not using PPP

Authentication protocols

Name Function
CHAPChallenge Handshake Authentication ProtocolUses a hashed algorithm MD5 that provides client response encryption; weak and one-way authentication protocol
MS-CHAPMicrosoft Challenge Handshake Authentication ProtocolHas two versions used in Windows systems that offers more security; version1 not compatible with version2
PAPPassword Authentication ProtocolThe weakest authentication protocol that sends username and password in clear text over the network to be verified by RAS
RADIUSRemote Authentication Dial-in User ServiceAn industry standard that provides authentication, authorization, and accounting services
KerberosA fully-fledge security system that uses secret key cryptography
EAPExtensible Authentication ProtocolA general protocol often used by a wireless devices to connect to a RADIUS server; TLS uses certificates such as smart cards

Routing protocols

RIPRouting Information ProtocolFinds the quickest route between two computers; offers a maximum of 16 hops between routers before deciding that a packet is undeliverable
OSPFOpen Shortest Path FirstA descendant of RIP that increases its speed and reliability; much used on the internet; accepts 256 hops between routers
IGRPInterior Gateway Routing ProtocolA propriety protocol from Cisco that takes bandwidth, latency, reliability, and current traffic load into consideration
EGPExterior Gateway ProtocolA distance vector protocol that uses polling to retrieve routing information
BGPBorder Gateway ProtocolUsed to span autonomous systems in the internet; used at the edge of networks; designed to supersede EGP
NLSPNetware Link Services ProtocolA link state routing protocol that was designed to reduce wasted bandwidth associated with RIP
RTMPRouting Table Maintenance ProtocolUsed by Appletalk to ensure that all routers in the network have consistent routing information
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