What is the Linux file system ?

The Linux file system is a logical collection of files on a partition or disk. Every partition is a container for information and can span an entire hard drive if desired.

Linux file system is generally a built-in layer of a Linux operating system and Your hard drive has various partitions for storing operating information.

Linux file system

Linux file system
/The root directory is the top-level directory in the FHS. All other directories are subdirectories of root, which is always mounted on some volume
/binEssential command-line utilities. Should not be mounted separately, otherwise, it could be difficult to get to these utilities when using a rescue disk. On RHEL 7, it is a symbolic link to /usr/bin.
/bootIncludes Linux startup files, including the Linux kernel. The default, 500MB, is usually sufficient for a typical modular kernel and additional kernels that you might install during the RHCE or RHCSA exam.
/devHardware and software device drivers for everything from floppy drives to terminals. Do not mount this directory on a separate volume. 
/etcMost basic configuration files. Do not mount this directory on a separate volume.
/homeHome directories for almost every user.
/libProgram libraries for the kernel and various command-line utilities. Do not mount this directory on a separate volume. On RHEL. 7, this is a symbolic link to /usr/lib.  
/lib64Same as /lib, but includes 64-bit libraries. On RHEL 7, this is a symbolic link to/usr/lib64.  
/mediaThe mount point for removable media, including DVDs and USB disk drives.
/miscThe standard mount point for local directories mounted via the automounter.
/mntA mount point for temporarily mounted filesystems.
/netThe standard mount point for network directories mounted via the automounter.
/optCommon location for third-party application files.
/procA virtual filesystem listing information for currently running kernel-related processes, including device assignments such as IRQ ports, I/O addresses, and DMA channels, as well as kernel-configuration settings such as IP forwarding. As a virtual filesystem. Linux automatically configures it as a separate filesystem in RAM.
/rootThe home directory of the root user. Do not mount this directory on a separate volume.
/runA tmpfs filesystem for files that should not persist after a reboot. On RHEL 7, filesystem replaces /var/run, which is a symbolic link to /run.
/sbinSystem administration commands. Don’t mount this directory separately. On RHEL 7. this is a symbolic link to /usr/bin.  
/smbThe standard mount point for remote shared Microsoft network directories mounted via the automounter  
/srvCommonly used by various network servers on non-Red Hat distributions.  
/sysSimilar to the /proc filesystem. Used to expose information about devices, drivers, and some kernel features.
/tmpTemporary files. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux deletes all files in this directory periodically.  
/usrPrograms and read-only data. Includes many system administration commands, utilities, and libraries.
/varVariable data, including log files and printer spools.

30 Linux troubleshoot command

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